The Ironic Dominance of ID in a Distraught Father in Manuel Arguilla’s “Rice”

Manuel Arguilla’s limited story “Rice” (1938) presents the readers with a meandering of situations that mirrors two literary approaches. 1 is of a psychoanalytic perspective wherein the 3 divisions of the psyche are what dominate or interplay in the evolution of the story. 1 division is the id, which is part of the psyche that is entirely unconscious and is the supply of psychic power derived from instinctual desires and drives. The second division is the moi which is the organized mindful mediator between the individual and fact in particular by operating the two in the perception of and adaptation to truth. Last of all, is the superego which is the component of the psyche that is only partly mindful, which represents internalization of parental conscience and the guidelines of culture, and which functions to reward and punish as a result of a method of ethical attitudes, conscience, and a feeling of guilt. The other literary method could be a Marxist point of view which states that a literary do the job may comprise a lesson about the impact in our life of the immorality and typical indecency of the very well-off classes who are offered the rights to operate and management our economic procedure.

The tale commences with Mang Pablo, an aged farmer in Hacienda Consuelo who is on his way household, on the lookout for his spouse and children to report his mischief for that day’s harvest. Osiang, the wife of his fantastic friend, Andres, fulfills him as she will come out of their hut. Mang Pablo, because of to his previous age, struggles to advise Osiang of that day’s harvest for she is caught up pounding in her mortar. Meanwhile, Osiang rants about the immorality of the men and women from Hacienda Consuelo to have them, the small-class persons settling in the put, fork out a fine of five 1cavanes of rice for a handful of snails they would get in the creek. Mang Pablo, at the time again, struggles to inform Osiang that there is no rice for that working day.

The story shifts to a flashback of what happened in the early morning when he, Mang Pablo, alongside one another with the other tenants of Hacienda Consuelo have pushed to the house of the Senora to borrow grain. Unfortunately for him and his fellow farmers, an announcement arrives from the 2encargado of the sacks of rice. The announcement says that 5 sacks of rice to be borrowed on that working day will develop into 10 at harvest time. This news terribly surprises Mang Pablo and the other farmers, ranting that they have usually borrowed 3tersiohan i.e. four cavanes of rice for 6. Just after which, the Señora will come out with her cane beating the polished floor as she threatens the farmers with the information that each sack of rice harvested on that day will be loaded by vans and be sent to the town thus the tenants will definitely starve of hunger.

The tale shifts back again to the existing with Osiang, who is continue to oblivious that there’s no rice for that day, presenting Mang Pablo coals from her stove. Mang Pablo tries the moment once more to inform Osiang of the horrible information but she goes back again to pounding in her minimal stone mortar.

After some time, Osiang’s partner, comes and satisfies up with Mang Pablo. Mang Pablo insists on stopping Andres and their fellow farmers’ strategy of robbing rice and killing the truckloaders but Andres’ mind is produced up. They argue on the penalties of their prepare. Mang Pablo feedback on likely to 4Bilibid if they continue on with their program. Andres responses back, declaring there will be rice in the Bilibid. Mang Pablo insists yet again on what they would acquire if they would go via their strategy. Andres answers this, stating, the rice is for their wives and they little ones.

Following Andres and Osiang’s exit arrives his family members with each other with a watchman. The watchman methods Mang Pablo and informs him of the violation – picking snails from the creek – his family committed and the fine they have to pay. Then they stroll home. Sabel, Mang Pablo’s daughter, consistently cries to his father of hunger. Just after thinking about what to do with his desperate situation, Mang Pablo grabs his bolo, arrives out of their hut, and walks his way to Andres who stands silently ready for him by the broken-down fence.

As aforementioned the tale of “Rice” could be considered in two literary perspectives. Just one is that of a Marxist perspective. In the story, the Señora in Hacienda Consuelo represents the affluent persons who oppressed the powerless people represented by Mang Pablo, his family, and his fellow farmers. The Señora‘s illustration of an affluent oppressor is implied when she comes out of her mansion with her cane beating the porch’s ground. A cane has both of those a beneficial and negative connotation. In the story, though, the cane symbolizes negativity – it was a instrument utilised for beating or inflicting pain.

The Señora had occur out, her cane beating a speedy tattoo on the polished floor of the porch

The tale also displays a scenario of repression and manipulation of employees by their entrepreneurs. It is obvious when the announcement of 5 sacks of rice borrowed turn into 10 at harvest time will come in. Mang Pablo and his fellow farmers repeated around and more than that they have generally borrowed tersiohan i.e. four sacks of rice come to be six. They insisted that 5takipan – five sacks for 10 – is as well substantially.

“5 come to be ten,” the encargado stated, “Both that or you get no rice.”

“Do you see people trucks?” she experienced finished, pointing to a few significant pink vehicles under the mango tree in the yard. “If you do not take the rice today, tonight the vans will carry every sack in sight to the city. Then I hope you all starve, you ungrateful beasts!”

The story also depicts benefit for points for their usefulness in the modern society. For the oppressed (Mang Pablo and the other farmers), rice is a factor that they, lowly individuals, benefit and use to fulfill their hunger for food items. For the oppressors (Señora and the authority), they value rice for it symbolizes that they are of significant social status and have electrical power to dominate around the small-course folks. This literary work’s context stays dependable with the ideology that rice is a staple food stuff for anyone to fulfill hunger, and to symbolize one’s social standing and power in the society.

An overlapping literary solution to this tale, moreover a Marxist technique, would be a psychoanalytic perspective. As discussed, psychoanalytic approach includes the roles of the three divisions of the psyche – id, ego, and superego – in a literary work. In Arguilla’s “Rice”, an interaction of these three divisions is implied as to how he narrates each and every event in the tale. He starts with Mang Pablo subjecting to his ego as he accepts the fact that he will endlessly be a lowly guy sure to provide the individuals in power.

Although not stated, the steady and unconscious disregard of Osiang with Mang Pablo’s news that there will be no rice could advise Mang Pablo’s acceptance of his latest scenario of residing in a put dominated by people today of superiority i.e. the complete ignorance of the significant social class to reduced social class folks like them.

“Andres is chatting with some of the gentlemen at the residence of Elis. Osiang, do you know the place Sebia and the small children are?”

Why will not he come property? He knows I have been ready the total day for the rice he is bringing dwelling! I am so hungry. I can not even drag my bones away from the stove. What is he accomplishing at the household of Elis, the shameless, fantastic-for-nothing son-of-a-whore?

Pablo moved away from the fence, stumbling a very little, for the very long blades of grass obtained in his way. “There is no rice, Osiang,” he known as back again wheezily around his shoulder, but evidently the female did not hear him for she went on talking: “Mang Pablo, how several cavanes of rice did you borrow?...”

“There is no rice, Osiang,” he whispered. He felt way too exhausted and weak to elevate his voice…

The adhering to sentence taken from the assortment indicates that Mang Pablo succumbs to be a lowly servant to the people in Hacienda Consuelo when he couldn’t carry himself any more to Osiang to notify the bad announcement.

Pablo appeared up at her and preferred to explain to her once again that there was no rice, but he could not bring himself to do it…

In the middle of the story, Mang Pablo is currently being dominated by his superego of contradicting his fellow farmers’ program of stealing the sacks of rice they meticulously harvested and the probable prospect of killing the truckloaders. It is apparent in the story when his fellow farmer, Andres, arrives home to his spouse, Osiang.

“Are you coming with us?” he questioned Pablo, his voice grating harshly in his throat as he strove to talk quietly. There was in his tiny eyes, a intense, desperate look that Pablo found really hard to meet.

Really don’t be a idiot, Andres,” he mentioned, coughing to crystal clear his throat and making an attempt to surface quiet…

“What can you do, Andres?” he said. “You say you will prevent the vans bearing the rice to the metropolis. That will be robbery.

In the close what dominated in Mang Pablo’s psyche is his id. Soon after the watchman, jointly with his spouse and kids, solution him and convey to him of his family’s violation, Mang Pablo contemplates on how to find payment for his family’s violation and on how to obtain meals to feed his family members. His daughter, Sabel, continuously arrives and mutters to him her starvation for food items. Until finally that night time, he decides to succumb to his id – he decides to go with Andres and their fellow farmers’ prepare of thieving and killing the truckloaders of the rice they harvested in the early morning.

The piece of wooden at very last broke and Pablo was still left with a limited stub in his palms. He gazed at it, sobbing with rage and weak point, then he ran to the hut crying, “Give me my bolo, Sebia, give me my bolo. We shall have food items tonight.

Adhering to this scene, Sebia tries to halt Mang Pablo on succumbing to their strategy. Mang Pablo’s superego at some stage, interaction his id, major him to his indecisiveness.

“God help you save me,” Pablo said, brokenly. He brought up his knees and dropping his face concerning them, wept like a youngster

Exterior the darkness had thickened. Pablo picked his way by the tall grass in the lawn. He stopped to look back again at his home

Mang Pablo’s final action reveals that he has finally permit his id dominate him.

He tightened the belt of the significant bolo about his midsection. Pulling the previous buri hat firmly more than his head, he joined Andres, who stood waiting by the broken-down fence. In silence, they walked jointly

“Rice” is a narrative, written by Manuel Arguilla, which depicts the way of dwelling of farmers who are below the authority of the superiors in Hacienda Consuelo. It narrates how the rice marks the big difference involving the two courses, for owning rice signifies possessing superior social position and electrical power. The oppressors (represented by Señora) use their authority (of claiming rice harvested by the farmers) to gain about the lowly persons (the oppressed, Mang Pablo and his fellow farmers). It also narrates how a single dilemma can lead a individual to committing a heinous crime brought about by desperation which is built apparent when Mang Pablo joined his fellow farmers in executing the crime for his and their families’ survival.

1cavanes – just one cavanes of rice is equal to a person sack of rice (fifty kilos of rice)

2encargado – one particular who carries loads or sacks of rice from sleds to vans

3tersiohan – a procedure of borrowing among Filipinos wherein 4 sacks of rice is paid for six

4Bilibid – a Filipino phrase for “jail” or “prison”

5takipan – a technique of borrowing between Filipinos whereby in 5 sacks of rice is paid out for 10 (the sum to be borrowed results in being double at harvest time)


Arguilla, M. E. 1998. How My Brother Leon Introduced Dwelling a Wife and Other Stories. Manilla: De La Salle College Push, Inc.